Chemistry Chapter 10 | 2nd Year

 Chapter 10 Notes | Chemistry 2nd Year

“Alkyl Halides”

  1. Monohalo derivate of alkanes are called alkyl halides.chapter-10-chemistry-2nd-year-notes
  2. The best method for the preparation of alkyl halides is by the reactions of alcohols with inorganic halides like SOCl2 PX3 and PX5.
  3. Alkyl halides are very reactive class of organic compounds. The undergo nucleophilic substitution reactions and elimination reactions in the presence of a nucleophilic or a base.
  4. Nucleophilic substitution reactions take place simultaneously with elimination reactions and often compete with them.
  5. Elimination of two atoms or groups from adjacent carbon atoms in the presence of a nucleophilic or a base is called elimination reaction. Like nucleophilic substitution, β-elimination reaction also take place in two distinct ways E2 and E1.
  6. Grignard reagent can be prepared by adding alkyl halide in a stirred suspension of magnesium metal in diethyl ether.
  7. Grignard reagent has a reactive nucleophilic carbon atom which can react with electrophilic centers to give the products in high yields.
  8. Primary, secondary and tertiary alcohols can be best prepared by reacting Grignard reagent with formaldehyde, any other aldehydes and ketones, respectively.

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