Chapter 3 Notes | Chemistry 1st Year
- States of Matter
- Gas Laws
- General Gas Equation
- Avogadro’s Law
- Dalton’s Law of Partial Pressures
- Diffusion And Effusion
- Kinetic Molecular Theory of Gases
- Kinetic Interpretation of Temperature
- Liquefaction of Gases
- Non-Ideal Behavior of Gases
- Plasma State
- The behavior of gas is described through 4 variables i.e. pressure, volume, temperature and its number of moles. The relationships b/w gas variables are know as the simple gas laws. Boyle’s law relates pressure of a gas with its volume, while Charles’s law relates gas volume with temperature. Avogadro’s law is concerned with volume and amount of gas.
- By combining the above mentioned three laws, a more general equation about the behavior of gas is obtained PV=nRT. This equation can be solved for any one of the variables when values of others are known.
- Dalton’s law of partial pressure can be used to calculate the partial pressure of gases.
- The process of diffusion and effusion are best understood by Graham’s law of diffusion.
- Kinetic molecular theory of gases provides a theoretical basis for various gas laws. With the help of this theory a relationship is established b/w average molecular kinetic enegrgy and kelvin temperature.
- The real gases show ideal behavior under specific conditions. They become non-ideal at high pressure and low temperature.
- Gases can be liquified applying sufficient pressure but temperature should either be critical one or below it.
- To calculate the pressure of volume of a real gas under the non-ideal conditions, alternative kinetic equation has been developed. This is known as the van der Waal’s equation.
- The plasma, a forth state of mater, consist of neutral particles, positive ions and negative electron, 99% of the known universe is in the plasma state.