Chapter 10 Notes | Chemistry 2nd Year
- Monohalo derivate of alkanes are called alkyl halides.
- The best method for the preparation of alkyl halides is by the reactions of alcohols with inorganic halides like SOCl2 PX3 and PX5.
- Alkyl halides are very reactive class of organic compounds. The undergo nucleophilic substitution reactions and elimination reactions in the presence of a nucleophilic or a base.
- Nucleophilic substitution reactions take place simultaneously with elimination reactions and often compete with them.
- Elimination of two atoms or groups from adjacent carbon atoms in the presence of a nucleophilic or a base is called elimination reaction. Like nucleophilic substitution, β-elimination reaction also take place in two distinct ways E2 and E1.
- Grignard reagent can be prepared by adding alkyl halide in a stirred suspension of magnesium metal in diethyl ether.
- Grignard reagent has a reactive nucleophilic carbon atom which can react with electrophilic centers to give the products in high yields.
- Primary, secondary and tertiary alcohols can be best prepared by reacting Grignard reagent with formaldehyde, any other aldehydes and ketones, respectively.
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