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Chemistry

Chemistry Chapter 15 | 2nd Year

 Chapter 15 Notes | Chemistry 2nd Year "Common Chemicals Industries In Pakistan"Agriculture has been one of the oldest indsutry known to man. Since 5000 B.C Chinese have been using animals manure in their fields. Fertilizer is the…

Chemistry Chapter 13 | 2nd Year

 Chapter 13 Notes | Chemistry 2nd Year "Carboxylic Acids"Organic compounds containing carboxylic group are called carboxylic acids. There are two classes of carboxylic acids. Ie., aliphatic and aromatic carboxylic acids. Aliphatic…

Chemistry Chapter 12 | 2nd Year

 Chapter 12 Notes | Chemistry 2nd Year "Aldehydes And Ketones"Aldehydes and ketones contain the carbonyl group, C = O as the functional group. Both aldehydes and ketones can be prepared by the oxidation of primary and secondary…

Chemistry Chapter 11 | 2nd Year

 Chapter 11 Notes | Chemistry 2nd Year "Alcohols, Phenols And Ethers"Alcohols and phenols are hydroxyl derivatives of aliphatic and hydrocarbons. Alcohols usually named by replacing ‘e’ for the alkane with ‘ol’ In Pakistan ethanol…

Chemistry Chapter 10 | 2nd Year

 Chapter 10 Notes | Chemistry 2nd Year "Alkyl Halides"Monohalo derivate of alkanes are called alkyl halides. The best method for the preparation of alkyl halides is by the reactions of alcohols with inorganic halides like SOCl2 PX3…

Chemistry Chapter 9 | 2nd Year

 Chapter 9 Notes | Chemistry 2nd Year "Aromatic Hydrocarbons"Aromatic hydrocarbons include benzene and all those compounds that structurally related to benzene. Aromatic hydrocarbons containing in benzene ring in their molecules are…

Chemistry Chapter 8 | 2nd Year

 Chapter 8 Notes | Chemistry 2nd Year "Aliphatic Hydrocarbons"Hydrocarbons are made up of carbon and hydrogen only. Saturated hydrocarbons are called alkanes. They do not contain functional groups. Alkanes react with halogen by a…

Chemistry Chapter 7 | 2nd Year

 Chapter 7 Notes | Chemistry 2nd Year "Fundamental Principles Of Organic Chemistry"Chemical compounds were classified as organic and inorganic compounds based on their origin. Organic compounds are obtained from living things whereas…

Chemistry Chapter 6 | 2nd Year

 Chapter 6 Notes | Chemistry 2nd Year "Transition Elements"Transition element have partially filled d or f-subshells in atomic state or in any of their commonly occurring oxidation states. IIB and IIIB group elements are called…

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