Chapter 15 Notes | Chemistry 2nd Year
"Common Chemicals Industries In Pakistan"
Agriculture has been one of the oldest indsutry known to man. Since 5000 B.C Chinese have been using animals manure in their fields.
Fertilizer is the…
Chapter 14 Notes | Chemistry 2nd Year
The polymer chains may be linear branched or cross-linked.
A thermoplastic polymer is the one which can be softened and hardened by heatin and cooling respectively.
Chapter 13 Notes | Chemistry 2nd Year
Organic compounds containing carboxylic group are called carboxylic acids. There are two classes of carboxylic acids. Ie., aliphatic and aromatic carboxylic acids. Aliphatic…
Chapter 12 Notes | Chemistry 2nd Year
"Aldehydes And Ketones"
Aldehydes and ketones contain the carbonyl group, C = O as the functional group.
Both aldehydes and ketones can be prepared by the oxidation of primary and secondary…
Chapter 11 Notes | Chemistry 2nd Year
"Alcohols, Phenols And Ethers"
Alcohols and phenols are hydroxyl derivatives of aliphatic and hydrocarbons.
Alcohols usually named by replacing ‘e’ for the alkane with ‘ol’
Chapter 10 Notes | Chemistry 2nd Year
Monohalo derivate of alkanes are called alkyl halides.
The best method for the preparation of alkyl halides is by the reactions of alcohols with inorganic halides like SOCl2…
Chapter 9 Notes | Chemistry 2nd Year
Aromatic hydrocarbons include benzene and all those compounds that structurally related to benzene.
Aromatic hydrocarbons containing in benzene ring in their molecules…
Chapter 8 Notes | Chemistry 2nd Year
Hydrocarbons are made up of carbon and hydrogen only. Saturated hydrocarbons are called alkanes. They do not contain functional groups.
Alkanes react with halogen by a…
Chapter 7 Notes | Chemistry 2nd Year
"Fundamental Principles Of Organic Chemistry"
Chemical compounds were classified as organic and inorganic compounds based on their origin. Organic compounds are obtained from living things whereas…
Chapter 6 Notes | Chemistry 2nd Year
Transition element have partially filled d or f-subshells in atomic state or in any of their commonly occurring oxidation states.
IIB and IIIB group elements are called…